The Virgin Galactic model dubbed, SpaceShipTwo is being built by aerospace expert, Burt Rutan owner of Scaled Composites LLC. As one might expect, Rutan and Branson have come up with a highly efficient and extraordinary design for their space tourism spacecraft. SpaceShipTwo will launch after reaching the upper atmosphere after detaching from the mother ship called Eve. The hybrid motor uses nitrous oxide and according to Sir Richard does not contain harmful toxins as solid rockets used by the space shuttle. Another advantage of the upper atmosphere launch is the cost savings for fuel. Virgin to Become the World’s First Commercial Space Tourism Operator This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
(PhysOrg.com) — Philips Electronics and the Dutch bank ABN AMRO have joined forces to develop a “Rationalizer” bracelet system that detects stress levels and displays a warning to help day-traders avoid making hasty decisions. Professor: ‘Depression is like the worst disease you can get’ (Video) Explore further Citation: ‘Rationalizer’ bracelet tells traders when they’re stressed (2009, November 17) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2009-11-rationalizer-bracelet-traders-theyre-stressed.html Dialogues Incubator Director Paul Iske said the Rationalizer was an example of the innovative ideas being developed to add value to the customers. In this case the device should help traders look at their transactions more objectively, and warn them when irrational or unwise decisions are likely.Senior Director at Philips Design, Clive van Heerden, said emotional sensing was becoming more important in today’s digital world. He also believes there are many other possible applications, such as game controllers, intelligent cameras to interpret social situations, or even dating sites that enable you to tell who is attracted to you. © 2009 PhysOrg.com Day trading can be a hazardous occupation and rash, irrational decisions can lose the trader a lot of money. Philips and ABN AMRO decided to solve that problem by inventing a device that senses the emotions of the wearer and warns the investor to wait and carefully consider any decisions on the next transaction.The concept device was developed by Philips Design and ABN AMRO’s Dialogues Incubator, with the assistance of the VU University in Amsterdam, after research confirmed that day traders sometimes act irrationally because their actions are affected by their stress level and powerful emotions such as greed or fear. The Rationalizer consists of an “EmoBracelet” and an “EmoBowl” and incorporates sensors and signal processors designed by Philips. The EmoBracelet’s galvanic skin response sensor measures the level of emotional arousal in a similar way to a lie detector. The result is displayed on either the bracelet or the EmoBowl as a light display that intensifies and changes to reflect the wearer’s intensifying emotional arousal. At the highest emotional stress level the display has a greater number of elements moving at higher speed, and the color changes to a warning red. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen (PhysOrg.com) — Ever since scientists began studying the brain, they’ve wanted to get a better look at what was going on. Researchers have poked and prodded and looked at dead cells under electron microscopes, but never before have they been able to get high resolution microscopic views of actual living brain cells as they function inside of a living animal. Now, thanks to work by physicist Stefan Hell and his colleagues at the Max Planck Institute in Germany, that dream is realized. In a paper published in Science, Hell and his team describe the workings of their marvelous discovery. Play STED time-lapse recording of a single spine at an interval of 10 seconds. The measurement includes 128 z-stacks consisting of 5 slices each. Most of the rapid remodeling of the spine head appears continuous and smooth at this frame rate. No damage is observed at the dendrite or the spine after recording a total of 640 slices. The movie was acquired in a different experiment than the spines in Fig.1. Scale bar = 1µm. Video: DOI:10.1126/science.1215369 The new microscope provides clear resolution down to 70 nanometers, which is four times that ever achieved before and is enough to allow scientists to see the actual movement of dendritic spines, which may help researches understand why they do so.It is likely that researchers will find many varied uses for the new microscope. One prominent area will almost certainly involve looking into what psychiatric drugs are really doing within synapses, perhaps leading to breakthroughs in pharmaceutical drugs that are better able to target specific illnesses.One downside to any new scientific breakthrough however, is the natural tendency of many to move from excitation, to wondering about what will come next. In this case, Hell and his team have already started contemplating ideas on ways to allow researchers to study any cell in the living brain at such high resolution, not just those that lie on the surface. © 2011 PhysOrg.com Citation: Renowned physicist invents microscope that can peer at living brain cells (2012, February 3) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-02-renowned-physicist-microscope-peer-brain.html Explore further Schematic drawing of the upright STED microscope used for the experiments. Image: Science, DOI:10.1126/science.1215369 Physicist builds advanced microscope Hell (which in German means “bright”) and others at the Institute have been working for years on ultra high resolution microscopes that go by the name “stimulated emission depletion” or STED microscopes. Now, they’ve taken their work to a whole new level by cutting away a small portion of a mouse’s skull and replacing it with a glass window and then placing their latest STED microscope against the glass to peer inside. To make it easier to see what is what, the team first genetically altered the mouse to make certain brain cells fluorescent. Then, to allow for focusing exclusively on just those cells that are lit up, they added software to the microscope to blot out anything that was not lit up. The result is super high resolution real time imagery of the neurons that exist on the exterior part of a living mouse brain. Journal information: Science More information: Nanoscopy in a Living Mouse Brain, Science 3 February 2012: Vol. 335 no. 6068 p. 551. DOI: 10.1126/science.1215369ABSTRACTWe demonstrated superresolution optical microscopy in a living higher animal. Stimulated emission depletion (STED) fluorescence nanoscopy reveals neurons in the cerebral cortex of a mouse with <70-nanometer resolution. Dendritic spines and their subtle changes can be observed at their relevant scales over extended periods of time. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Citation: Research suggests cells communicate via biophotons (2012, May 23) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-05-cells-biophotons.html Egg-like cells obtained in pig fetal skin Mayburov is not alone in his thinking. Other researchers have found what they believe to be evidence of cells communicating by emitting streams of biophotons. Some have even have found what they believe are associations between the emittance of biophotons and increased cell division in plants growing in close proximity; so much so that they have measured increases of up to 30%. Others have found that biophotons emitted from older eggs in a clutch, appear to inhibit the growth of immature eggs; a form of survival of the fittest, or at least the more mature.To find out if fish eggs are able to play a similar role, Mayburov turned out the lights in his lab and recorded biophotons as they were emitted from the eggs. His aim was to see if any discernible pattern could be found, which would perhaps offer some clues as to how biophotons could be used by organisms or their cells to communicate. After much study, he says he has indeed found such a pattern and that it resembles the way we humans send binary data over noisy communications channels. The biophotons he studied he says, emit near periodic bursts of photons which could conceivably be seen and interpreted by other organisms or their cells who could then respond accordingly.Mayburov’s results don’t really prove anything of course, his results are purely speculative, yet they do suggest that there might be more to biophotons than has been previously thought. More work will have to be conducted to find answers to the many questions that still exist, such as how do cells actually create them, and if other cells in other organisms are really listening, how do they do it, and perhaps more importantly, how do they know how to respond to them? Explore further More information: Photonic Communications and Information Encoding in Biological Systems, arXiv:1205.4134v1 [q-bio.OT] arxiv.org/abs/1205.4134AbstractThe structure of optical radiation emitted by the samples of loach fish eggs is studied. It was found earlier that such radiation perform the communications between distant samples, which result in the synchronization of their development. The photon radiation in form of short quasi-periodic bursts was observed for fish and frog eggs, hence the communication mechanism can be similar to the exchange of binary encoded data in the computer nets via the noisy channels. The data analysis of fish egg radiation demonstrates that in this case the information encoding is similar to the digit to time analogue algorithm.via Arxiv Blog Journal information: arXiv © 2012 Phys.Org (Phys.org) — Biologists have long been familiar with luminescence in organisms, where plants and animals produce visible light, but more intriguing perhaps is the newer field of study centered around biophotons, whereby cells in organisms produce photons, but in numbers that are too few to be seen. How they do so and why, is an area that has come under more scrutiny of late. Now, new research by Sergey Mayburov, of the Lebedev Institute of Physics in Moscow, has uncovered a pattern in photons being generated by cells in fish eggs that gives credence to the theory that some cells use biophotons to communicate. He has written a paper describing his results and has posted it on the preprint server arXiv. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Example of ’message’ send by ﬁsh eggs, full time scale 400 sec. Image from arXiv:1205.4134v1
Phonon propagating through a square lattice (atom displacements greatly exaggerated). Credit: Wikipedia For many years, physicists have used phonons to assist in describing the way heat moves through crystals. Thermal conductivity occurs via two processes: scattering between phonons due to atomic vibrations and disruptions to the lattice. This method has proven to be quite accurate for predicting the way heat will be conducted through many crystals, but for some, it has not worked well at all. In this new effort, the researchers added a new vibrational mode, relaxons, to improve results for such crystals.Relaxons, they explain, come about from coordinate frame changes that are different than for phonons—they decay to an equilibrium population over a well-defined lifetime. The researchers tested their new model by applying it to two materials: graphene and silicon. In silicon, the researchers found results within 2 percent of those conducted using the standard phonon approach, demonstrating success. With graphene, the researchers found different results—it read 8 times higher than that found using the standard phonon approach, which agreed with calculations performed prior to testing, indicating that it was a better approach. This suggests the new method offers a better means for making predictions of thermal conductivity when creating objects using graphene and perhaps other crystals. Adding relaxons is, in a sense, offering a new way to envision the means by which heat is conducted through certain types of crystals.The addition of relaxons to the field of heat conduction, the team notes, has implications for future theoretical studies—it could be used, perhaps, in work related to the interpretation of hydrodynamic transport, offering a new means for making predictions. The new model is also likely to have an impact on experimental research as well, particularly in mean free path spectroscopy, a new field in which researchers are looking to isolate the impact of carriers with different mean free paths to conductivity. Citation: Researchers introduce relaxons to help describe heat flow through some crystals (2016, October 21) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-10-relaxons-crystals.html Explore further © 2016 Phys.org More information: arxiv.org/abs/1603.02608 A team of researchers with École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne in Switzerland has introduced a new vibrational mode called a relaxon to the field of heat conduction theory to describe the way heat flows through some crystals. In their paper published in the journal Physical Review X, the team describes their new model and how well it worked when testing it with two particular crystals. Journal information: Physical Review X Thermoelectric silicon material reaches record-low thermal conductivity This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Citation: Stretchable sodium-ion battery electrodes made using sugar cubes (2017, April 25) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-04-stretchable-sodium-ion-battery-electrodes-sugar.html © 2017 Phys.org This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. The scientists, led by Guihua Yu at the University of Texas at Austin, have published a paper on the new stretchable batteries in a recent issue of Advanced Materials.By starting with sugar cubes, the researchers were able to obtain the size, shape, and porosity needed for high-performance battery electrodes. The researchers first placed ordinary sugar cubes on top of a polymer gel in a dish. After the dish was placed in a vacuum, heated in an oven, and washed, the sugar was dissolved away and the polymer gel took its place, resulting in stretchable polymer sponges. The pores of the polymer sponges were then filled with a conductive graphene-based solution to create “sponge electrodes,” which the researchers achieved by immersing the sponges in the solution and squeezing them several times to soak it up.As the researchers explained, the sponge’s porous architecture provides a combination of stretchability, mechanical strength, fast sodium-ion transport, and large storage capacity. Tests showed that the full battery can be stretched to 50% beyond its original length, and that the strain is limited by the intrinsic properties of the polymer material. The researchers expect that modifying the polymer or developing a new nanoarchitectured elastomer could further increase the stretchability of the battery. More information: Hongsen Li et al. “An All-Stretchable-Component Sodium-Ion Full Battery.” Advanced Materials. DOI: 10.1002/adma.201700898
Kolkata: The day when Kurukh, Kamtapuri, Rajbanshi and Kurmali will be used for official purposes in the state, is not too far with the Governor giving his consent for the same. It was on February 8 that the West Bengal Official Language (Amendment) Bill was passed in the state Assembly, to declare use of Kurukh language for official purposes in the state.Again on February 28, the West Bengal Official Language (Second Amendment) Bill 2018 was also passed, to declare Kamtapuri, Rajbanshi and Kurmali languages as “official languages in the districts, sub-divisions, blocks or municipalities…where the Kamtapuri, Rajbanshi and Kurmali speaking population exceeds 10 percent as a whole or part of the district like sub-division or block”. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsIt may be recalled that the step of introducing Kamtapuri, Rajbanshi and Kurmali languages as official ones, was taken following recommendations of the expert committee headed by Nrisingha Prasad Bhaduri.After Governor Keshari Nath Tripathi gave the consent, the state Law department had issued a notice in this connection last month. Following the notice of the Law department, the Information and Cultural Affairs department will be issuing another notification as per the set norms and from the day the notification is issued, the languages will be used as official ones. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedThough the date of the notification is yet to be finalised, according to officials it would not take too long for the same.It may be mentioned that Kurukh is spoken by the Oraon tribal community. There are around 17 lakh people, who speak the language in places including Alipurduar, Jalpaiguri, Cooch Behar, South Dinajpur and North 24-Parganas. There are around 36.82 lakh Kurukh speaking people in the country.Kurukh, Kamtapuri, Rajbanshi and Kurmali will be used as official languages, besides Urdu, Hindi, Bengali, Nepali, Santhali, Oriya and Punjabi.This comes at the time when the Mamata Banerjee government has taken up different steps for the revival of endangered tribal languages. Moreover, the government has also ensured overall development of the tribal communities in the state.It may be mentioned that hundreds of people will be benefitted, with the four languages being used for official purposes.
In order to ensure the rehabilitation of the adolescent inmates of Tihar Jail, the Legends of India have brought in