zoomIllustration; Image Courtesy: MODEC Japanese supplier and operator of offshore floating platforms Modec has issued USD 1.1 billion in bonds to refinance a floating production storage and offloading (FPSO) unit in Brazil.The company said that the bond would fund the FPSO, chartered to the TUPI consortium led by Petrobras, with the aim of strategically diversifying its financing sources for Modec’s entire FPSO charter business.The company explained that the move was made due to the expansion of the number of FPSO charter projects simultaneously executed by Modec in recent years, while the scale of financing for these projects is also increasing.“In response to these changes in the business environment, the aims of issuing the project bond are to enhance Modec Group’s financial stability by diversifying its financing sources for FPSO projects, as well as to secure financing flexibility for the future growth of the Modec Group,” the company noted.This project bond was issued for the FPSO Cidade de Mangaratiba MV24 which has been deployed and is currently in operation at the Iracema Sul oil field in the “pre-salt” region offshore Brazil.The FPSO is chartered by a consortium formed by Petrobras (65%), Royal Dutch Shell plc (25%) and Petrogal Brasil S.A. (10%) under a fixed-price charter contract that extends until 2034.The FPSO achieved the first oil production in October 2014 at which time, the 20-year charter of the FPSO began.“This transaction marks the first project bond for an FPSO project sold in the Regulation S/Rule 144A market, and was sold to a broad range of international investors outside Japan, mainly in Europe and the United States. Total investor demand for the issue was approximately 2-times the issue amount of the USD 1.1 billion project bond,” Modec added.Modec is currently carrying out 11 FPSO charter projects simultaneously all over the world, and four more FPSOs are currently under construction.
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Citation: Research suggests cells communicate via biophotons (2012, May 23) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-05-cells-biophotons.html Egg-like cells obtained in pig fetal skin Mayburov is not alone in his thinking. Other researchers have found what they believe to be evidence of cells communicating by emitting streams of biophotons. Some have even have found what they believe are associations between the emittance of biophotons and increased cell division in plants growing in close proximity; so much so that they have measured increases of up to 30%. Others have found that biophotons emitted from older eggs in a clutch, appear to inhibit the growth of immature eggs; a form of survival of the fittest, or at least the more mature.To find out if fish eggs are able to play a similar role, Mayburov turned out the lights in his lab and recorded biophotons as they were emitted from the eggs. His aim was to see if any discernible pattern could be found, which would perhaps offer some clues as to how biophotons could be used by organisms or their cells to communicate. After much study, he says he has indeed found such a pattern and that it resembles the way we humans send binary data over noisy communications channels. The biophotons he studied he says, emit near periodic bursts of photons which could conceivably be seen and interpreted by other organisms or their cells who could then respond accordingly.Mayburov’s results don’t really prove anything of course, his results are purely speculative, yet they do suggest that there might be more to biophotons than has been previously thought. More work will have to be conducted to find answers to the many questions that still exist, such as how do cells actually create them, and if other cells in other organisms are really listening, how do they do it, and perhaps more importantly, how do they know how to respond to them? Explore further More information: Photonic Communications and Information Encoding in Biological Systems, arXiv:1205.4134v1 [q-bio.OT] arxiv.org/abs/1205.4134AbstractThe structure of optical radiation emitted by the samples of loach fish eggs is studied. It was found earlier that such radiation perform the communications between distant samples, which result in the synchronization of their development. The photon radiation in form of short quasi-periodic bursts was observed for fish and frog eggs, hence the communication mechanism can be similar to the exchange of binary encoded data in the computer nets via the noisy channels. The data analysis of fish egg radiation demonstrates that in this case the information encoding is similar to the digit to time analogue algorithm.via Arxiv Blog Journal information: arXiv © 2012 Phys.Org (Phys.org) — Biologists have long been familiar with luminescence in organisms, where plants and animals produce visible light, but more intriguing perhaps is the newer field of study centered around biophotons, whereby cells in organisms produce photons, but in numbers that are too few to be seen. How they do so and why, is an area that has come under more scrutiny of late. Now, new research by Sergey Mayburov, of the Lebedev Institute of Physics in Moscow, has uncovered a pattern in photons being generated by cells in fish eggs that gives credence to the theory that some cells use biophotons to communicate. He has written a paper describing his results and has posted it on the preprint server arXiv. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Example of ’message’ send by ﬁsh eggs, full time scale 400 sec. Image from arXiv:1205.4134v1