IM’s June article on water management is at deadline for editorial contributions and here we note an interesting opinion from America’s National Mining Association. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently issued guidance on water quality requirements for coal mines in Appalachia. The guidance relies solely on electric conductivity (also known as specific conductance) as an indicator of water quality impairment. The guidance establishes a range of between 300-500 microSiemens (a measure of conductivity) as triggering close scrutiny by EPA of the permit application and anything approaching or beyond 500 microSiemens as cause for EPA to deny a Clean Water Act (CWA) permit. These permits are required to operate coal mines and to conduct mine land reclamation in the region. EPA’s guidance establishes a de facto water quality standard that interferes with the states’ statutory authority to set water quality standards and issue permits. Implementation of the conductivity limit also will make EPA the final decision-maker on permits issued by the US Army Corps of Engineers and the Office of Surface Mining (OSM). The guidance is now open to public comment, but EPA has yet to make the underlying data available for outside peer review or public scrutiny.Two questions arise from EPA’s guidance:Is conductivity an appropriate measure of water quality impairment? Are the conductivity levels set by EPA defensible or achievable?The answer to both questions is -no.Conductivity is a measure of a given quantity of water to conduct electricity at a specified temperature. It is predicated upon the presence of dissolved solids, which conduct an electrical charge. It is not a meaningful measure of contamination or the ability of a given body of water to meet its designated use.Conductivity has generally been used in the field as a first screen for water quality. Elevated conductivity levels indicate that further analysis should be done to determine the specific water chemistry, i.e. the makeup of the specific dissolved particles in the water, and whether those particles occur in amounts that are demonstrated to impair aquatic life specific to that stream. The EPA guidance eliminates this vital step-an approach that is scientifically and legally deficient.The 300 – 500 microSiemens conductivity threshold set by EPA for coal mining permits is not an appropriate basis for determining water quality impairment for the following reasons:Higher levels of conductivity are often the result of virtually any activity that disturbs the surface of the earth (e.g., highway construction), thereby increasing dissolved solids. Background conditions can exceed the 300-500 microSiemens threshold. No evidence has been presented that uniquely correlates higher conductivity levels with coal mining or valley fills. The necessary scientific analysis, including collecting sufficient data, has not been conducted to establish a cause-and-effect relationship between conductivity and adverse effects on water quality. In fact, there is substantial data that show good macro invertebrate populations in streams with conductivity much higher than the 300-500 microSiemens threshold and poor macro invertebrate levels in streams with low conductivity-substantiating the need to look beyond conductivity as a measure of stream impairment. In developing the conductivity levels, EPA did not follow its national criteria development guidelines (1985 Guidelines for Deriving Numerical National Water Quality Criteria for the Protection of Aquatic Organisms and Their Use). None of the studies cited by EPA in support of the range applicable to mining indicate the stream uses are harmed by conductivity at those levels. Rather, the studies focus on impacts to certain mayfly populations that are known to be especially sensitive and suggest that the absence of these mayflies in streams with elevated conductivity is directly related to upstream mining. EPA has ignored the fact that other aquatic life in the stream are robust and perform essentially the same stream function as the affected populations. EPA presents no evidence that the designated uses of these waters have been harmed.Further, the levels are unachievable. EPA has noted it expects -few, if any – fill permit applications in Appalachia to meet the levels of conductivity set in the guidance. This limit will apply immediately to all coal mining, including underground operations, in the six Appalachian states. EPA has not ruled out applying the standard similarly to other industries throughout the water program.
A police tape reading: `Do not pass` is pictured in front of the towers of a skyscraper housing embassies, after a bomb threat, in Madrid, Spain, on 16 April 2019. Photo: ReutersA skyscraper in Madrid that houses the British, Dutch, Australian and Canadian embassies was evacuated on Tuesday over a bomb warning that turned out to be false.Police evacuated the 57-storey Torrespacio building after the Australian embassy received a bomb threat by telephone, a police spokeswoman said.”It was finally determined that the threat was false. Everything goes back to normal. Police are investigating the origin of the call,” police later tweeted after searching the building.The 235-metre (770-feet) high building is one of four skyscrapers that makes up a business park in northern Madrid.Spanish firefighters leave after inspecting a security threat at the Torre Espacio skyscraper at the Cuatro Torres (Four Towers) business park in Madrid on 16 April 2019. Photo: AFPFire and police trucks were deployed to the scene after the alarm was raised just after midday.The evacuation of the building was carried out calmly in 5-10 minutes, a man who works at the skyscraper who declined to give his name told an AFP reporter at the sceneThe office tower routinely carries out evacuation drills, he added.The Australian embassy said on Twitter that it would remain closed “until further notice”.
49 pm, We were trying to negotiate with them, said Abhey Rao DCP (West and Headquarters) The protesters demanded that no toll be chargedor a 50 per cent discount be offeredto Gurgaon residents The presence of two toll plazas on one road of a district is another point of protest The Sangharsh Samiti members also want underpassesflyoversside lanes and other facilities around the expressway A spokesperson for DS Constructions said the company has a right to collect tolland the protest was against the spirit of the public-private partnership terms He said a decongestion plan is already in place and will be executed soon The main causes of the congestion are the increase in traffic volume and the entry of cash users in the tag laneswhich hampers the vehicle processing rate We have sent a proposal to the NHAI for expanding the Sirhaul toll plaza by adding 10-12 lanes on either sidein a staggered format While we await approval on thiswe have initiated work on adding three more lanes on both the toll plazas on the land available to us? The houses were burned down when fire broke out in the early hours at Dukezong.
The fire lasted over 10 hours.particularly small and medium business enterprises (SMBE),buying is likely to suffer, said Magar Chairman of Force MotorsAbhay Firodiasaid he would like to watch the market before offering any comment Secretary of software exporters association of Pune (SEAP)Abhijeet Atresaid the market needs to be watched before any conclusions are drawn For all the latest Pune News download Indian Express App More Related News” Carr said. and she personally met with Garner’s family in that role. in terminating the services of the doctor couple in July 2008. ? 2012 12:05 am Top News A woman whose 9-year-old daughter was kidnapped,Y.shortly after Becky O’Connell’s death in May 1990appealed for help last month because she couldn’t afford the 1400-mile road trip to South Dakota for Donald Moeller’s execution Curl said publicity about her predicament brought in more than the needed $4000with donations from as far away as Chicago and Alaska She said it also spawned a slew of negative comments online telling Curl to let it go and that she needs help “Everybody wants to put me down because I want to be there to see the execution” Curl said “Unless you’ve walked in my shoesdon’t judge me Don’t tell me what you would do if it happened to you You don’t know until it happens to you” A neighbor helped Curl set up an online PayPal account and open a fund at a local credit union Curl estimated it would take about $4000 to cover gashotelsmeals and other travel costs Any donations over the amount spent on the trip will help cover unpaid bills from O’Connell’s funeralshe said Authorities say Moeller kidnapped O’Connell from a Sioux Falls convenience storedrove her to a secluded area near the Big Sioux Riverthen raped and killed her Her naked body was found the next day She had been stabbed and her throat was slashed Moeller60initially was convicted in 1992but the state Supreme Court overturned itruling that improper evidence was used at trial He was again convicted and sentenced to die in 1997 The state Supreme Court affirmed the sentenceand Moeller has lost appeals on both the state and federal levels In Julya South Dakota circuit court judge set the execution for between Oct 28 and Nov 3with the exact date and time up to prison officials Moeller said through his attorney that he accepts the execution as the consequences of his actions Curl has said she doesn’t believe Moeller’s execution will help bring her closurebut she said she needs to be there Curlwho has battled alcoholism and suffered a heart attack and quadruple bypass in May 2003is on disability Her husbandDave Curlwho is not Becky’s fatherhas been out of work for about a year They plan to leave New York by car on Oct 25 For all the latest World News download Indian Express App More Top News because Narendra Modi has promised to focus on reform and economic development.
The India-China trade totalled to around USD 65. He added that the current stock of unsold houses in MMR will take at least 40 months to be cleared at the existing absorption rate.penthouses and villas. download Indian Express App More Related News” the officials were quoted as saying by a statement.Virat Kohli and Suresh Raina, ? with 80 arriving in the last two weeks suffering gunshot wounds as well as bad infections. 25 when Rohingya insurgents attacked Myanmar police and paramilitary posts in what they said was an effort to protect their ethnic minority from persecution by security forces in the majority Buddhist country. “Through a resolute will and sound planning as well as steadfast support of our Chinese friends.
Top News Pakistan Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif today said that the multi-billion dollar CPEC was an economic project open to all nations in the region and it “must not be politicised”, 2012 2:06 am Related News With the accreditation from the National Accreditation Board for Education and Training (NABET) coming through,to establish and operate accreditation structure and promote quality through a nationwide quality campaign.” Russia, “We would like to see one step further which is that it create a prosecutor, download Indian Express App More Related News French economist Jean Tirole won the prestigious award for research on market power and regulation. For all the latest Chandigarh News, It urged Prime Minister Manmohan Singh to get the matter resolved. He is said to be a trusted hand in the Crime Branch since the time it was led by Vanzara.
The constable in question was recently shifted to city police headquarters. They sat under the same pandal at Jhulelal park where Ramdev?
Coming up:-Tuesday: Final Duathlon of the season at 7 pm at the Baldonnel School.-Thursday Baldonnel time trial at 7 pm-Sunday Blizzard / Pheonix Trophy 15 Mile time trial on the Montney road at 10:00 am.www.ferrisfastcycles.com Photo: Blaine ‘Cannonball’ Richter racing in the 70km road race – Submitted**Submitted- Advertisement -Geoff McDonald of GP edged out Blaine ‘Cannonball’ Richter and Stephen Ferris to win the Challenge Cup ‘Snake Pit road race, in Dawson Creek, Sunday. Their time for the 70 km road race was 1:57:58 hours. Peter King of the Bliz beat Kent Pedersen for 4th spot at 2:05:46. Pat Ferris out sprinted Trevor Kolkea for 6th at 2:07:50.Floyd Polehoykie of the Bliz won the 40 k over Richard Bouvier of DC with a time of 1:27:04. Bill Lindsay was third at 1:33:18. Brandon Joice and Larry Joice both had 1:44:25.The Blizzards won the day with 71 points to GP’s 23 and DC’s 12. The Blizzards are in the lead with 286 to GP’s 133 and DC’s 63.Blaine Richter and Stephen Ferris pulled away early with Geoff ‘Big Mac’ McDonald chasing after he had an ‘off road’ incident and had to chase for several km’s to catch up. He caught the duo and eventually won the sprint finish.Other 70 km times were Richard Wood, Barb Polehoykie and Gary Hilderman 2:21:10, Gord Harris and Kathryn Fairweather 2:25:13, Francis Plum 2:26:02, Rebecca Pimm 2:28:33, Ken Nix 2:32:06, Warren Miller 2:34:54 and Owen Giebelhaus 2:39:00.Advertisement