Phonon propagating through a square lattice (atom displacements greatly exaggerated). Credit: Wikipedia For many years, physicists have used phonons to assist in describing the way heat moves through crystals. Thermal conductivity occurs via two processes: scattering between phonons due to atomic vibrations and disruptions to the lattice. This method has proven to be quite accurate for predicting the way heat will be conducted through many crystals, but for some, it has not worked well at all. In this new effort, the researchers added a new vibrational mode, relaxons, to improve results for such crystals.Relaxons, they explain, come about from coordinate frame changes that are different than for phonons—they decay to an equilibrium population over a well-defined lifetime. The researchers tested their new model by applying it to two materials: graphene and silicon. In silicon, the researchers found results within 2 percent of those conducted using the standard phonon approach, demonstrating success. With graphene, the researchers found different results—it read 8 times higher than that found using the standard phonon approach, which agreed with calculations performed prior to testing, indicating that it was a better approach. This suggests the new method offers a better means for making predictions of thermal conductivity when creating objects using graphene and perhaps other crystals. Adding relaxons is, in a sense, offering a new way to envision the means by which heat is conducted through certain types of crystals.The addition of relaxons to the field of heat conduction, the team notes, has implications for future theoretical studies—it could be used, perhaps, in work related to the interpretation of hydrodynamic transport, offering a new means for making predictions. The new model is also likely to have an impact on experimental research as well, particularly in mean free path spectroscopy, a new field in which researchers are looking to isolate the impact of carriers with different mean free paths to conductivity. Citation: Researchers introduce relaxons to help describe heat flow through some crystals (2016, October 21) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-10-relaxons-crystals.html Explore further © 2016 Phys.org More information: arxiv.org/abs/1603.02608 A team of researchers with École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne in Switzerland has introduced a new vibrational mode called a relaxon to the field of heat conduction theory to describe the way heat flows through some crystals. In their paper published in the journal Physical Review X, the team describes their new model and how well it worked when testing it with two particular crystals. Journal information: Physical Review X Thermoelectric silicon material reaches record-low thermal conductivity This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Junior all-around gymnast Jake Martin has claimed multiple accolades during his time as a Buckeye.Credit: Courtesy of OSU AthleticsBig Ten athletics are, more often than not, associated with football or men’s basketball.But that’s not what comes to mind for Jake Martin.When Martin thinks of the Big Ten, the first things that come to his mind are: Ohio State, gymnastics at Michigan and gymnastics at Illinois, the OSU all-around gymnast said.“I think gymnastics in general is underrated,” he said.Martin, a junior from Oviedo, Fla., has been a three-time U.S. Junior National Team member, and claimed fifth in the all-around at the 2014 NCAA Championships, along with picking up multiple Gymnast of the Week titles.When Martin was growing up and was asked where he wanted to attend college, he would mention OSU, and typically hear about the quality of its football team, he said. But he’d instead respond with names of top gymnasts that competed for the Buckeyes.“Blaine Wilson went here, Raj Bhavsar went there, the Hamm twins,” Martin said. “I know a lot of these things about the school that a lot of people wouldn’t know.”Wilson is a gymnast who won the Nissen-Emery Award in 1997, which is men’s gymnastics’ equivalent of the Heisman Trophy. He is also a silver medal recipient from the 2004 Athens Olympics. Bhavsar won the bronze medal in the 2008 summer Olympics and twins Paul and Morgan Hamm are American gymnasts who helped the U.S. win multiple medals in the 2000 and 2004 Olympics.Gymnastics was Martin’s biggest factor when it came down to attending college, he said. The freezing cold temperatures of Ohio are certainly not what he’s used to from growing up in central Florida, but it was a reasonable trade-off because of OSU’s impressive gymnastics program.Now with the Buckeyes, Martin has at least one teammate who thinks he’s at the top of the sport.“(Martin) is one of the best gymnasts in the United States in my opinion,” sophomore all-around Sean Melton said.While he might be one of the best by his teammate’s standards, there were some who told Martin to take his talents to a different sport when he was younger.Growing up tall, gymnastics wasn’t the first sport that came to people’s minds for Martin.“A lot of people told me going into high school, ‘You should probably think about doing other sports to get a scholarship,’” he said. “I did get some kind of grief from people.”Martin said people sometimes told him “gymnastics is a girl’s sport”, but he just laughed it off.“I didn’t do gymnastics for anyone,” he said. “I did it for me. So I just thought to myself, ‘If it’s a girl’s sport, I’m just going to enjoy it.’”Along with honing his craft as a gymnast, Martin said he has high aspirations in the classroom as well.As a junior international studies major, he’s preparing to take the LSAT in June and is preparing as much as he can to attend law school. Martin said the athletic department and school itself have been helpful during his times of frantic scheduling.Growing up, Martin appreciated the support he got from his family and friends. Now in college, the two-time All-American has noticed that the atmosphere OSU has sets it apart from the rest.“You have people in the crowd that you don’t know,” Martin said. “But they’re wearing scarlet and gray so you know they’re cheering for you and you know they’ve got your back.”Melton said Martin brings more to the team than anyone could ever ask for.“I think he’s a great leader,” Melton said. “To have him on my team is definitely something we’re happy about and I can’t speak more highly of him.”Martin discovered his interest in gymnastics when he was a child with a growing curiosity. His cousins taught him how to do a back handspring off of an old mattress, which he mimicked off of his couch, resulting in a sprained thumb.Shortly after, he was signed up for gymnastics class and within a year, he was signed up for a pre-team because of his impressive progression.“Once I started gymnastics, that was it … I just decided that this is exactly what I want to do,” he said.Martin considers gymnastics a sport in which one must always work at perfecting their skill.“The main goal (in a lot of other sports) is to score,” Martin said.For gymnastics, however, he said displaying one’s perfectly crafted skills is the main goal.“We’re using our bodies differently,” he said. “When people think of brute strength, they think of weightlifting. But when you look at still rings, you have to hold these positions and it’s the same thing except our toes are pointed.“Gymnastics brings this element of brute strength, but we have to make it look good.”While the 2016 Olympics aren’t for some time, Martin said he uses every practice and competition to hone his skills into becoming a better athlete and an Olympic hopeful.“It’s nerve-wracking and I try not to think about what’s going to happen a little over a year from now,” he said. “But it is coming up and I have been thinking about it.”
Organizations around the globe have always been looking for ways to give back. In the present, many have been inspired by the events of the ongoing pandemic and a commitment to uplifting disenfranchised members of the community. Groups that have had prior experience organizing humanitarian efforts serve as a blueprint for these organizations.Mission E4 stands out as one such group. Utilizing its commitment to scripture and a firm dedication to the people, members work to positively impact Haitian communities. In 2020, the organization completed work on a temporary school in Baussan, Haiti- and Mission E4 has its sights set on launching additional schools in 2021.Mission E4’s GoalAs is the case for most organizations that perform mission trips, Mission E4 uses scripture as the primary inspiration of its work. Ephesians 4:11-13 stands out as the passage most central to the organization’s message.“So Christ himself gave the apostles, the prophets, the evangelists, the pastors and teachers, to equip his people for works of service, so that the body of Christ may be built up until we all reach unity in the faith and in the knowledge of the Son of God and become mature, attaining to the whole measure of the fullness of Christ. “Mission E4’s leaders share the meaning of the scripture with each of its one-week visitors, maintaining that “God calls all Christians to be missionaries”.In upholding this message, they realized just how willing team members are to drop denominational boundaries to focus on sharing the Gospel of Jesus and helping individuals currently in need. Assisting the local church in its efforts to equip God’s people for service, instill maturity in believers, and bring unity, continues to serve as the main theme and call of Mission E4. Commitment to these values allow Mission E4’s team to provide the assistance necessary to bring sustainable change.What Have Mission E4’s Haitian School Programs Accomplished?Since its founding in 2005, Mission E4 has completed crucial infrastructural work for the people of Haiti through its mission trips. Mission E4 currently has ten elementary schools, a high school, and a trade school located in Haiti, with over 3000 children being served between these facilities. The organization also provides access to employment opportunities for over 200 full-time indigenous workersMuch work has been done to further improve facilities completed by the organization as well. This includes the construction of new bathrooms with improved handwashing stations at five schools, a new generator and trash incinerator at Mission E4’s Leogane campus, and vast improvements to its orphanages in Batso, Fauche, and Leogane, Haiti.Mission E4 Board Member, Ed Rarick, speaks to the scope of the improvements the organization has made between his first mission trip in October 2010 and his seventh in April of 2020.Rarick’s first trip was just months after the devastating earthquake that had an estimated death toll of 250,000. Unfortunately, the earthquake effected millions more. He recalls that many people were living in tents due to the destruction of their homes, and that there was a lack of potable water, toilets, and electricity throughout the region that he visited.Scott Long, Mission E4’s late co-founder, spoke with Rarick about the organization’s goal of bringing sustainable improvements to Haiti- both for its team members and individuals in the communities that they serve.As of 2020, Long made good on those promises of helping to bring sustainable development to the region. Mission teams now stay at the Mission E4 Administrative Campus, in buildings that contain showers and toilets. A garbage incinerator is scheduled to be operational in a few months, ensuring that Mission E4 can effectively dispose of trash. In addition, the organization has completed development on several schools and facilities since Ed Rarick’s first visit.Mission E4 recognizes the impact that widespread hunger has on the communities it serves and has worked to improve the public’s access to hot meals as a crucial part of missionary work. Morning and evening meals are served by the staff of Christella’s Restaurant, a woman that grew up in Mission E4’s girls’ orphanage. She manages the restaurant, which provides jobs for as many as 15 community members during its peak times, serving both missionaries and members of the public.Looking to the FutureMission E4 continues to embody the philosophy that inspired the organization since the beginning. To this point, the group continues to look to ways that it can make practical improvements to aid the Haitian community.Currently, Mission E4 is dedicated to several projects that will continue to build upon the foundation it has laid in the time since its founding in 2005.One such development is the goal of completing a permanent school building in Lafferonay, Haiti. This is a major undertaking by the organization, and its team will collaborate with the mission’s Haitian workers to ensure the project is completed in 2021. Mission E4 is also working towards completing development on four new elementary schools this year, one of which has recently launched.Perhaps the largest project that Mission E4 currently has in development is the construction of a new church across from its Administrative Center. This church is being paid for and built by members of the community that Mission E4 has continued to serve for 16 years. By buying the land, the materials, and facilitating construction, the community is proudly showing that Scott Long’s vision is still in motion.The organization acknowledges that there is still much work to do, both in Haiti and at Massachusetts-based ministries that require assistance. Fortunately, a variety of organizations are seeing the importance of assisting communities local and abroad with the wide range of challenges that exist in the present. The organization maintains that with a strong mission, a commitment to goals, and a dedication to the work, groups just getting started can bring positive change.
Natasha Adams, Claire McGuigan,Ann-Marie McGlynnLifford AC ladies have been confirmed as the Athletics Ireland National 10k Team Champions.After beating off stiff competition from Donore Harriers and Raheny Shamrocks. The Lifford team consisted of Ann-Marie Mc Glynn, Natasha Adams and Claire Mc Guigan.The trio built on their recent run in the National Relay Champions where they finished 7th. Nastaha Adams has also picked up Silver in the 35+ category. This team had only started coming together last summer when Nastaha Adams joined the club. Nastasha who secured 2 silver medals in the National Masters Indoors in the 3000m and 1500m this year. These medals were won back to back in the space of an hour of each other. Natasha’s first win however came in the Danny Mc Daid 15k last Autumn in Letterkenny. Natasha also had a strong Cross Country season last winter with a 2nd in both the Donegal Novice event and the Ulster Novice which were both held in Killybegs. Natasha also competed in the National Novice Cross Country where she finished 8th overall in a very strong field.The next athlete to join the team was Ann-Marie McGlynn. Ann Marie who had been off the racing front for 6 years returned with a bang. Ann-Marie who has a list of stunning performances since last July. Ann Marie took a Bronze medal in the AAI indoor open games in the 1500m in Athlone. She then returned to the same track a few weeks later where she claimed a National Silver Medal in the 3000m. In cross country Ann Marie also had a great winter with a 3rd in the Donegal Senior. The Lifford team also secured a Silver medal in this event. Ann Marie most recent success was in the Omagh Half Marathon where she won the event. That was Ann Marie first ever time to race that distance which shows the determination of the Lifford AC to succeed in any event.The final piece of the jigsaw was completed when Claire Mc Guigan joined in the Autumn of last year. Claire’s biggest win since has been the Donegal Novice Cross Country last October where she finished ahead of clubmate Natasha Adams. Claire built on this with a 3rd in the Ulster Novice a month later. Claire also finished an impressive 3rd in the Waterside Half Marathon last September and also a 4th in the Omagh Half Marathon a number of weeks ago. Claire also raced the Cara Bundoran 10 mile in March this year where she was 4th finishing only 4 seconds from 3rd.Also a big mention to Bill Duncan who finished 9th in the 45+ category in the National 10k. Kevin Connolly who has been responsible for recruiting and coaching all 3 athletes is delighted with the results and the progress of his team. Kevin has put the success down to all the athletes in the group who all train together and work hard for each other, without everyone these results would have been more difficult to achieve. Kevin is expecting big things from his athletes this summer, no pressure though folks LIFFORD AC LADIES STRIKE GOLD! was last modified: April 25th, 2013 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)