Eve–named after Sir Richard’s Mom. Credit: Scaled Composites LLC The SpaceShipTwo has a capacity to carry six space tourists and two pilots into suborbital space at speeds up to 2500 mph and soar about 65-miles above the Earth. The expected ticket price is $200,000 per passenger and currently there are 300 space tourists on the waiting list. Testing on SpaceShipTwo will begin later this year. Scaled Composites is located in Mojave, California. Paul Allen provided major funding for the SpaceShipTwo design that went a long way to garner the $10 million dollar Ansari X Prize. The Virgin Galactic team is fired up and ready for GO.Sources:Scaled Composites LLC, www.scaled.comVirgin Galactic, www.virgingalactic.com© 2009 PhysOrg.com Virgin Galactic owned by Sir Richard Branson completed a successful test on May 28, 2009 of its hybrid nitrous oxide motor designed by Scaled Composites and a subcontractor Sierra Nevada Corporation. The innovative hybrid motor is the largest of its kind in the world and offers safety features including a kill switch allowing the spaceship to glide back to Earth and perform a conventional runway touch down. Citation: Sir Richard Branson All Fired Up With Latest Rocket Motor Test (2009, May 31) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2009-05-sir-richard-branson-latest-rocket.html Explore further The Virgin Galactic model dubbed, SpaceShipTwo is being built by aerospace expert, Burt Rutan owner of Scaled Composites LLC. As one might expect, Rutan and Branson have come up with a highly efficient and extraordinary design for their space tourism spacecraft. SpaceShipTwo will launch after reaching the upper atmosphere after detaching from the mother ship called Eve. The hybrid motor uses nitrous oxide and according to Sir Richard does not contain harmful toxins as solid rockets used by the space shuttle. Another advantage of the upper atmosphere launch is the cost savings for fuel. Virgin to Become the World’s First Commercial Space Tourism Operator This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
(PhysOrg.com) — Philips Electronics and the Dutch bank ABN AMRO have joined forces to develop a “Rationalizer” bracelet system that detects stress levels and displays a warning to help day-traders avoid making hasty decisions. Professor: ‘Depression is like the worst disease you can get’ (Video) Explore further Citation: ‘Rationalizer’ bracelet tells traders when they’re stressed (2009, November 17) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2009-11-rationalizer-bracelet-traders-theyre-stressed.html Dialogues Incubator Director Paul Iske said the Rationalizer was an example of the innovative ideas being developed to add value to the customers. In this case the device should help traders look at their transactions more objectively, and warn them when irrational or unwise decisions are likely.Senior Director at Philips Design, Clive van Heerden, said emotional sensing was becoming more important in today’s digital world. He also believes there are many other possible applications, such as game controllers, intelligent cameras to interpret social situations, or even dating sites that enable you to tell who is attracted to you. © 2009 PhysOrg.com Day trading can be a hazardous occupation and rash, irrational decisions can lose the trader a lot of money. Philips and ABN AMRO decided to solve that problem by inventing a device that senses the emotions of the wearer and warns the investor to wait and carefully consider any decisions on the next transaction.The concept device was developed by Philips Design and ABN AMRO’s Dialogues Incubator, with the assistance of the VU University in Amsterdam, after research confirmed that day traders sometimes act irrationally because their actions are affected by their stress level and powerful emotions such as greed or fear. The Rationalizer consists of an “EmoBracelet” and an “EmoBowl” and incorporates sensors and signal processors designed by Philips. The EmoBracelet’s galvanic skin response sensor measures the level of emotional arousal in a similar way to a lie detector. The result is displayed on either the bracelet or the EmoBowl as a light display that intensifies and changes to reflect the wearer’s intensifying emotional arousal. At the highest emotional stress level the display has a greater number of elements moving at higher speed, and the color changes to a warning red. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Explore further Chan, a post-doc at Argonne National Lab (formerly at MIT), points out that the theory is lacking when it comes to band gaps. “The band gap problem is a well known one. However, using current methods, there is quite a bit of inaccuracy when it comes to calculating band gaps.” Band gaps in solids are important, especially if researchers want to identify the best materials for a variety of functions. The maximum efficiency of a solar cell, for example, is determined by the band gap of the material. “The inability to predict the band gap is holding back research in photovoltaics, as well as in semiconductors and thermoelectrics,” Chan points out.However, Chan thinks that a solution might have been found. Working with professor Gerbrand Ceder at MIT, it appears that a modified application of density functional theory – with a special generalization for solids – might hold the key to more accurate predictions of band gaps. The work is described in Physical Review Letters: “Efficient Band Gap Prediction for Solids.”“In the past, researchers have broken down individual electrons using a sort of itemized list of individual states. This has allowed for calculations revealing different properties, including band gaps. Unfortunately, the accuracy of the band gap predictions has been off,” Chan says. She points out that scientists know that silicon has a band gap of about 1.2 eV, but when current methods are employed to calculate the band gap, the answer is 0.7 eV. “You can see how that’s a problem if you are trying to gauge the suitability of a material for specific purposes,” she continues.To get a more accurate prediction of band gaps, Chan and Ceder created a method that involves altering the use of density functional theory so that an itemized list of individualized states is not the only consideration. “We also recognize that there are a number of interactions between electrons. So we look at the total energy, which includes these interactions,” Chan explains.Not only do Chan and Ceder make use of the total energy, but they also demonstrate that the band gap can be viewed as a property of the ground state. “This changes the way we view the band gap, seeing that it is a part of the ground state,” Chan says.Moving forward, Chan hopes that this technique can be used to identify the band gaps of different materials with more accuracy. This could prove useful in identifying the best options when creating future technology. “This work is part of the Materials Genome project started by Professor Ceder, with a goal of predicting properties of known compounds and using the knowledge to design new ones,” Chan says. “Part of that is understanding the band gap and being able to quickly determine the band gaps of various materials.”“Our method is relatively inexpensive, and could be useful when learning the properties of new materials,” Chan continues. “If someone came up with a new kind of material, predicting the band gap is not a question easily answered in the past. Hopefully our work will pave the way for easier answers in the future.” More information: M.K.Y. Chan and G. Ceder, “Efficient Band Gap Prediction for Solids,” Physical Review Letters (2010). Available online: prl.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v105/i19/e196403 Copyright 2010 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. Citation: Enhanced efficiency when determining band gap in solids (2010, November 23) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2010-11-efficiency-band-gap-solids.html (PhysOrg.com) — “With density functional theory, we are able to put different elements in a computer simulation and do calculations based on quantum mechanics to find out about their different properties,” Maria Chan tells PhysOrg.com. However, density functional theory is not entirely helpful in identifying all the properties associated with different compounds. Toward a better understanding of bilayer graphene This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen (PhysOrg.com) — Ever since scientists began studying the brain, they’ve wanted to get a better look at what was going on. Researchers have poked and prodded and looked at dead cells under electron microscopes, but never before have they been able to get high resolution microscopic views of actual living brain cells as they function inside of a living animal. Now, thanks to work by physicist Stefan Hell and his colleagues at the Max Planck Institute in Germany, that dream is realized. In a paper published in Science, Hell and his team describe the workings of their marvelous discovery. Play STED time-lapse recording of a single spine at an interval of 10 seconds. The measurement includes 128 z-stacks consisting of 5 slices each. Most of the rapid remodeling of the spine head appears continuous and smooth at this frame rate. No damage is observed at the dendrite or the spine after recording a total of 640 slices. The movie was acquired in a different experiment than the spines in Fig.1. Scale bar = 1µm. Video: DOI:10.1126/science.1215369 The new microscope provides clear resolution down to 70 nanometers, which is four times that ever achieved before and is enough to allow scientists to see the actual movement of dendritic spines, which may help researches understand why they do so.It is likely that researchers will find many varied uses for the new microscope. One prominent area will almost certainly involve looking into what psychiatric drugs are really doing within synapses, perhaps leading to breakthroughs in pharmaceutical drugs that are better able to target specific illnesses.One downside to any new scientific breakthrough however, is the natural tendency of many to move from excitation, to wondering about what will come next. In this case, Hell and his team have already started contemplating ideas on ways to allow researchers to study any cell in the living brain at such high resolution, not just those that lie on the surface. © 2011 PhysOrg.com Citation: Renowned physicist invents microscope that can peer at living brain cells (2012, February 3) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-02-renowned-physicist-microscope-peer-brain.html Explore further Schematic drawing of the upright STED microscope used for the experiments. Image: Science, DOI:10.1126/science.1215369 Physicist builds advanced microscope Hell (which in German means “bright”) and others at the Institute have been working for years on ultra high resolution microscopes that go by the name “stimulated emission depletion” or STED microscopes. Now, they’ve taken their work to a whole new level by cutting away a small portion of a mouse’s skull and replacing it with a glass window and then placing their latest STED microscope against the glass to peer inside. To make it easier to see what is what, the team first genetically altered the mouse to make certain brain cells fluorescent. Then, to allow for focusing exclusively on just those cells that are lit up, they added software to the microscope to blot out anything that was not lit up. The result is super high resolution real time imagery of the neurons that exist on the exterior part of a living mouse brain. Journal information: Science More information: Nanoscopy in a Living Mouse Brain, Science 3 February 2012: Vol. 335 no. 6068 p. 551. DOI: 10.1126/science.1215369ABSTRACTWe demonstrated superresolution optical microscopy in a living higher animal. Stimulated emission depletion (STED) fluorescence nanoscopy reveals neurons in the cerebral cortex of a mouse with <70-nanometer resolution. Dendritic spines and their subtle changes can be observed at their relevant scales over extended periods of time. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Citation: Research suggests cells communicate via biophotons (2012, May 23) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-05-cells-biophotons.html Egg-like cells obtained in pig fetal skin Mayburov is not alone in his thinking. Other researchers have found what they believe to be evidence of cells communicating by emitting streams of biophotons. Some have even have found what they believe are associations between the emittance of biophotons and increased cell division in plants growing in close proximity; so much so that they have measured increases of up to 30%. Others have found that biophotons emitted from older eggs in a clutch, appear to inhibit the growth of immature eggs; a form of survival of the fittest, or at least the more mature.To find out if fish eggs are able to play a similar role, Mayburov turned out the lights in his lab and recorded biophotons as they were emitted from the eggs. His aim was to see if any discernible pattern could be found, which would perhaps offer some clues as to how biophotons could be used by organisms or their cells to communicate. After much study, he says he has indeed found such a pattern and that it resembles the way we humans send binary data over noisy communications channels. The biophotons he studied he says, emit near periodic bursts of photons which could conceivably be seen and interpreted by other organisms or their cells who could then respond accordingly.Mayburov’s results don’t really prove anything of course, his results are purely speculative, yet they do suggest that there might be more to biophotons than has been previously thought. More work will have to be conducted to find answers to the many questions that still exist, such as how do cells actually create them, and if other cells in other organisms are really listening, how do they do it, and perhaps more importantly, how do they know how to respond to them? Explore further More information: Photonic Communications and Information Encoding in Biological Systems, arXiv:1205.4134v1 [q-bio.OT] arxiv.org/abs/1205.4134AbstractThe structure of optical radiation emitted by the samples of loach fish eggs is studied. It was found earlier that such radiation perform the communications between distant samples, which result in the synchronization of their development. The photon radiation in form of short quasi-periodic bursts was observed for fish and frog eggs, hence the communication mechanism can be similar to the exchange of binary encoded data in the computer nets via the noisy channels. The data analysis of fish egg radiation demonstrates that in this case the information encoding is similar to the digit to time analogue algorithm.via Arxiv Blog Journal information: arXiv © 2012 Phys.Org (Phys.org) — Biologists have long been familiar with luminescence in organisms, where plants and animals produce visible light, but more intriguing perhaps is the newer field of study centered around biophotons, whereby cells in organisms produce photons, but in numbers that are too few to be seen. How they do so and why, is an area that has come under more scrutiny of late. Now, new research by Sergey Mayburov, of the Lebedev Institute of Physics in Moscow, has uncovered a pattern in photons being generated by cells in fish eggs that gives credence to the theory that some cells use biophotons to communicate. He has written a paper describing his results and has posted it on the preprint server arXiv. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Example of ’message’ send by ﬁsh eggs, full time scale 400 sec. Image from arXiv:1205.4134v1
Phonon propagating through a square lattice (atom displacements greatly exaggerated). Credit: Wikipedia For many years, physicists have used phonons to assist in describing the way heat moves through crystals. Thermal conductivity occurs via two processes: scattering between phonons due to atomic vibrations and disruptions to the lattice. This method has proven to be quite accurate for predicting the way heat will be conducted through many crystals, but for some, it has not worked well at all. In this new effort, the researchers added a new vibrational mode, relaxons, to improve results for such crystals.Relaxons, they explain, come about from coordinate frame changes that are different than for phonons—they decay to an equilibrium population over a well-defined lifetime. The researchers tested their new model by applying it to two materials: graphene and silicon. In silicon, the researchers found results within 2 percent of those conducted using the standard phonon approach, demonstrating success. With graphene, the researchers found different results—it read 8 times higher than that found using the standard phonon approach, which agreed with calculations performed prior to testing, indicating that it was a better approach. This suggests the new method offers a better means for making predictions of thermal conductivity when creating objects using graphene and perhaps other crystals. Adding relaxons is, in a sense, offering a new way to envision the means by which heat is conducted through certain types of crystals.The addition of relaxons to the field of heat conduction, the team notes, has implications for future theoretical studies—it could be used, perhaps, in work related to the interpretation of hydrodynamic transport, offering a new means for making predictions. The new model is also likely to have an impact on experimental research as well, particularly in mean free path spectroscopy, a new field in which researchers are looking to isolate the impact of carriers with different mean free paths to conductivity. Citation: Researchers introduce relaxons to help describe heat flow through some crystals (2016, October 21) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-10-relaxons-crystals.html Explore further © 2016 Phys.org More information: arxiv.org/abs/1603.02608 A team of researchers with École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne in Switzerland has introduced a new vibrational mode called a relaxon to the field of heat conduction theory to describe the way heat flows through some crystals. In their paper published in the journal Physical Review X, the team describes their new model and how well it worked when testing it with two particular crystals. Journal information: Physical Review X Thermoelectric silicon material reaches record-low thermal conductivity This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Journal information: Advanced Materials The stretchable sodium-ion full battery is attached to an athletic elbow brace under different bending states, where it continuously powers a commercial LED light. Credit: Li et al. ©2017 WILEY-VCH A sugar cube serves as a template for new stretchable, sponge-like, graphene-based battery electrodes. Credit: Li et al. ©2017 WILEY-VCH Explore further “This first-of-its-kind battery design maintains better mechanical properties compared with most reported designs using one or more rigid components that fail to meet the stretchability requirement for the entire device,” Yu told Phys.org. “Moreover, the demonstrated electrochemical performance rivals most previously reported stretchable energy systems. This novel stretchable sodium-ion battery represents a promising alternative for the next generation of energy-storage technologies in a broad range of applications.”In its current form, the battery retains nearly 90% of its capacity after 100 cycles of stretching to 50% strain. This performance is sufficient to enable the researchers to mount the stretchable battery on an elbow brace, and demonstrate that the battery continues to power an LED when the user’s arm is bent at different angles. The stretchable battery has potential applications in conformable health monitoring skin sensors, wearable communication devices, roll-up displays, and implantable medical devices.In the future, the researchers plan to make further improvements to the battery, such as extending the lifetime and scaling up the design to larger-sized batteries. They anticipate that the sponge design can also be extended to other types of devices, such as energy-harvesting devices.”Future directions will be focused on further improving the mechanical properties and electrochemical performance, along with lowering the manufacturing cost,” Yu said. (Phys.org)—Scientists have used sugar cubes as a template for synthesizing stretchable battery electrodes, which serve as a key component in newly designed stretchable yet mechanically robust sodium-ion batteries. Although there has recently been a great deal of research on stretchable batteries, usually these devices still contain some rigid components. By using electrodes templated on sugar cubes, the new battery is one of the first sodium-ion batteries whose components are all fully stretchable. Making sodium-ion batteries that last Citation: Stretchable sodium-ion battery electrodes made using sugar cubes (2017, April 25) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-04-stretchable-sodium-ion-battery-electrodes-sugar.html © 2017 Phys.org This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. The scientists, led by Guihua Yu at the University of Texas at Austin, have published a paper on the new stretchable batteries in a recent issue of Advanced Materials.By starting with sugar cubes, the researchers were able to obtain the size, shape, and porosity needed for high-performance battery electrodes. The researchers first placed ordinary sugar cubes on top of a polymer gel in a dish. After the dish was placed in a vacuum, heated in an oven, and washed, the sugar was dissolved away and the polymer gel took its place, resulting in stretchable polymer sponges. The pores of the polymer sponges were then filled with a conductive graphene-based solution to create “sponge electrodes,” which the researchers achieved by immersing the sponges in the solution and squeezing them several times to soak it up.As the researchers explained, the sponge’s porous architecture provides a combination of stretchability, mechanical strength, fast sodium-ion transport, and large storage capacity. Tests showed that the full battery can be stretched to 50% beyond its original length, and that the strain is limited by the intrinsic properties of the polymer material. The researchers expect that modifying the polymer or developing a new nanoarchitectured elastomer could further increase the stretchability of the battery. More information: Hongsen Li et al. “An All-Stretchable-Component Sodium-Ion Full Battery.” Advanced Materials. DOI: 10.1002/adma.201700898
by NPR News Philip Reeves 8.23.19 3:22pm Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro has responded to growing international condemnation over the fires sweeping through vast swaths of the Amazon rainforest by announcing that the army may be sent in to tackle them.His comments mark a distinct shift away from his initial reaction to the crisis in which he downplayed the gravity of the situation but also caused widespread astonishment by suggesting that nongovernmental organizations may have set fires in the forest to discredit him.Faced with a spiraling environmental and political disaster, Bolsonaro plans to meet his ministers Friday to discuss how to handle the fires, after government data revealed that there are far more of them within the forest this year than last.Environmental and climate change experts say there is abundant evidence that the fires are mostly caused by humans — notably cattle ranchers — and that these illegal operators are being encouraged to clear land by the policies of Bolsonaro, who is eager for Brazil to exploit the Amazon’s agricultural and mineral wealth.Brazilians are gearing up for a weekend of protests in dozens of cities, highlighting the destruction being wrought in the rainforest and demanding that Bolsonaro’s government takes decisive action to curb the fires. Satellite data from Brazil’s National Institute of Space Research shows that there have been more than 74,000 fires this year, many of them in the Amazon. The demonstrations are “in defense of the Amazon and our future,” according to organizers.Over the past few days, international pressure has been steadily growing on Bolsonaro over his handling of the issue, especially from European leaders. A spokesman for Britain’s newly installed prime minister, Boris Johnson, said he was “deeply concerned” about the fires and “the impact of the tragic loss of these precious habitats.” French President Emmanuel Macron plans to highlight the Amazon crisis at this weekend’s G-7 summit in Biarritz, France, after sending out a tweet describing them as “an international crisis” and declaring: “Our house is burning. Literally. The Amazon rain forest — the lungs which produces 20% of the planet’s oxygen — is on fire.” Macron raised the pressure on Brazil on Friday, issuing a statement accusing Bolsonaro of lying to him about his position on climate change and announcing that France has withdrawn its support for the Mercosur trade deal between the European Union and a South American bloc that includes Brazil. Irish Prime Minister Leo Varadkar warned that Ireland would pull out of the Mercosur agreement if Brazil did not take action to protect the rainforest, according to Reuters. Bolsonaro has made clear that he considers the Amazon rainforest — 60% of which is in Brazil — to be an issue of national sovereignty, and he makes no secret of his resentment at what he deems to be foreign interference driven by a desire to hold back Brazilian agrobusiness from competing in international markets. In recent weeks, he has alienated Germany and Norway, the two main contributors to the Amazon Fund, which supports forest preservation initiatives, prompting them to withhold tens of millions of dollars. His approach has won applause from his supporters on the far right, but is also causing widespread fears among Brazilians that it is proving highly damaging to the country’s international standing and may prompt a backlash that could impact exports.”The image of the burning forest ignites public opinion and incinerates Brazil’s reputation,” wrote Ana Lucia Azevedo, a columnist for O Globo. She warns that the crisis is wrecking “the prestige and credibility” acquired by Brazil after 2005, when deforestation rates dipped sharply.Another commentator, Vinicius Torrer Freire, wrote: “Within a few months, especially in recent weeks, he has knocked down two decades of improvements in Brazil’s international image regarding the environment.”Bolsonaro argues that it is possible simultaneously to develop the Amazon and preserve the forest. His critics point to his record of relentlessly undermining institutions responsible for preserving and monitoring the Amazon. Since taking office in January, he has severely weakened government environmental enforcement organizations, by cutting budgets and laying off staff. When Brazil’s National Institute of Space Research released satellite data showing a sharp month-on-month rise in deforestation over last year, Bolsonaro dismissed this as “lies” and replaced the director with a military official.His approach is causing deep concern among professionals fighting to protect the forest, who argue that these moves send the wrong message to illegal deforesters.”They feel emboldened to carry out more deforestation,” said Fluvio Mascarenhas, who works for the Chico Mendes Institute for the Conversation of Biodiversity — a government monitoring agency — in the western state of Acre. In a recent interview with NPR, Mascarenhas expressed profound concern about the impact of Bolsonaro’s policies. “Every time you look at a satellite image of the forest, you see another little piece is missing,” he said.Copyright 2019 NPR. To see more, visit NPR. Brazilian President Bolsonaro May Send Army To Combat… Frank Augstein
Kolkata: The day when Kurukh, Kamtapuri, Rajbanshi and Kurmali will be used for official purposes in the state, is not too far with the Governor giving his consent for the same. It was on February 8 that the West Bengal Official Language (Amendment) Bill was passed in the state Assembly, to declare use of Kurukh language for official purposes in the state.Again on February 28, the West Bengal Official Language (Second Amendment) Bill 2018 was also passed, to declare Kamtapuri, Rajbanshi and Kurmali languages as “official languages in the districts, sub-divisions, blocks or municipalities…where the Kamtapuri, Rajbanshi and Kurmali speaking population exceeds 10 percent as a whole or part of the district like sub-division or block”. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsIt may be recalled that the step of introducing Kamtapuri, Rajbanshi and Kurmali languages as official ones, was taken following recommendations of the expert committee headed by Nrisingha Prasad Bhaduri.After Governor Keshari Nath Tripathi gave the consent, the state Law department had issued a notice in this connection last month. Following the notice of the Law department, the Information and Cultural Affairs department will be issuing another notification as per the set norms and from the day the notification is issued, the languages will be used as official ones. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedThough the date of the notification is yet to be finalised, according to officials it would not take too long for the same.It may be mentioned that Kurukh is spoken by the Oraon tribal community. There are around 17 lakh people, who speak the language in places including Alipurduar, Jalpaiguri, Cooch Behar, South Dinajpur and North 24-Parganas. There are around 36.82 lakh Kurukh speaking people in the country.Kurukh, Kamtapuri, Rajbanshi and Kurmali will be used as official languages, besides Urdu, Hindi, Bengali, Nepali, Santhali, Oriya and Punjabi.This comes at the time when the Mamata Banerjee government has taken up different steps for the revival of endangered tribal languages. Moreover, the government has also ensured overall development of the tribal communities in the state.It may be mentioned that hundreds of people will be benefitted, with the four languages being used for official purposes.
In order to ensure the rehabilitation of the adolescent inmates of Tihar Jail, the Legends of India have brought in